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Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities still exist among Pacific Islander sub-populations. Data from national surveillance reports is limited.

  • Native Hawaiian mothers are twice as likely not to begin prenatal care until the third trimester of pregnancy.
  • The infant mortality rate for Native Hawaiians was 1.7 times greater as compared with non-Hispanic whites in 2002.
  • In 2014, Native Hawaiian mothers were 8.7 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy as compared to all Asian American mothers.
  • In 2014, Native Hawaiian mothers were twice as likely to receive late or no prenatal care as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers.
  • The infant mortality rate on the island of Guam was almost double that of non-Hispanic white infants born on the mainland of the United States, in 2013.
  • Recent data for this ethnic group is limited.

 

Infant Mortality Rate

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 2002*

Race of Mother
Infant Mortality Rate
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
5.8
--
Total Aian/Pacific Islander
4.8
0.8
Native Hawaiian
9.6
1.7
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
4.7
0.8

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 19.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births, by territory

Race of Mother
Infant Mortality Rate
Ratio** vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White (U.S. National, 2013)*
5.1
--
Guam (2013)*
9.1
1.8
Marshall Islands (2013)**
30.6
6.0
Northern Mariana Islands (2012)***
6.4
1.3
Palau (2013)**
15.1
3.0
American Samoa (2012)***
6.8
1.3
Federated States of Micronesia (2013)**
29.8
5.8

Comparable data is not available; this is for illustration only.

*Source (U.S. National):  CDC 2015.  Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports. Table C.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB]

**Source: WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Table CMS1320R [Accessed September 22, 2017]
http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.CM1320R

***Source:  WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Country Health Information Profiles, 2015
http://hiip.wpro.who.int/portal/DataAnalytics.aspx [Accessed September 22, 2017]

 

Leading Causes of Infant Mortality

  • National data not available at this time.

 

Prenatal Care

Percentage of live births in which mother received prenatal care starting in the 1st trimester, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Received Prenatal Care
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
88.6
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
84.8
1.0
Native Hawaiian
78.1
0.9
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
83.9
0.9

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 7.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Percentage of live births in which mother received prenatal care starting in the 3rd trimester or did not receive Prenatal Care at all, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Received Late or No
Prenatal Care
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
2.2
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
3.1
1.4
Native Hawaiian
4.7
2.1
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
3.5
1.6

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 7.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Characteristics of Mother

Percentage of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Mothers Who Smoked
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
15.0
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
2.5
0.2
Native Hawaiian (2002)
13.7
0.9
Other Asian/Pacific Islander (2002)
2.1
0.1

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 12.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Percentage of live births in which mother had less than 12 years of education, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Live Births
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
11.7
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
10.3
0.9
Native Hawaiian
14.3
1.2
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
11.6
1.0

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 11.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Percentage of live births in which mother had 16 years or more of education, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Live Births
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
34.3
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
45.7
1.3
Native Hawaiian
14.6
0.4
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
44.4
1.3

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 11.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Percentage of live births in which mother had less than 12 years of education, 2002*

Race of Mother
% Live Births
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
11.7
--
Total Asian/Pacific Islander
10.3
0.9
Native Hawaiian
14.3
1.2
Other Asian/Pacific Islander
11.6
1.0

Source:  CDC 2007.  Health United States, 2007. Table 11.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf [PDF | 6.01MB]

 

Percentage of mothers who received late or no prenatal care, 2014*

Race of Mother
Percent
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
4.3
--
Total Asian
5.7
1.3
Filipino
3.7
0.9
Native Hawaiian
8.8
2.0
Other Asian or Pacific Islander
6.8
1.6

Source: Child Trends Databank, 2015.
https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/late-or-no-prenatal-care/ [Accessed September 22, 2017]

Percentage of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, 2014

Race of Mother
Percent
Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
12.2
--
Total Asian
1.1
0.1
Filipino
1.3
0.1
Native Hawaiian
9.6
0.8
Other Asian or Pacific Islander
1.7
0.1

Source: Child Trends Databank, 2015.
https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/mothers-who-smoke-while-pregnant/ [Accessed September 22, 2017]

* More recent data is not available from CDC at this time

Last Modified: 10/6/2017 5:06:00 PM