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(Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Hispanic/Latino population according to the Census Bureau)
NY - CA - IL - TX -
AZ - NJ - CO - GA - FL - NM
This ethnic group includes any person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the 2012 U.S. Census Bureau population estimate, there are almost 53 million Hispanics living in the United States. This group represents 16.9 percent of the U.S. total population. In 2012, among Hispanic subgroups, Mexicans rank as the largest at 64.3 percent. Following Mexicans are: Puerto Ricans (9.4 percent), Central Americans (9.0 percent), South Americans (5.9 percent), and Cubans (3.7 percent). In 2011, States with the largest Hispanic populations are California (14.5 million), Texas (10 million), Florida (4.5 million), New York (3.5 million), and Illinois (2.1 milion). Another significant point is that in 2012, 33.2 percent of Hispanics were under the age 18 in comparison to 19.7 percent of non-Hispanic Whites.
Language Fluency: Language fluency varies among Hispanic subgroups who reside within the mainland United States. Census 2012 data shows that 74 percent of Hispanics speak a language other than English at home: 74% of Mexicans, 62% of Puerto Ricans, 80% of Cubans, 88% of Central Americans. 33 percent of Hispanics state that they are not fluent in English.
Educational Attainment: According to a 2012 U.S. Census Bureau report, 64 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 92 percent non-Hispanic Whites have a high school diploma. 13.8 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 32.5 percent of non-Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher.
Economics: According to a 2012 U.S. Census Bureau report, 26.6 percent of Hispanics, in comparison to 15.2 percent non-Hispanic Whites, work within service occupations. 19.5 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 40.3 percent of Whites work in managerial or professional occupations. Among full-time year-round workers in 2012, the average Hispanic/Latino median household income was $40,417 in comparison to $56,565 for non-Hispanic Whites. In 2012, the U.S. Census bureau reported that 25.4 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 11 percent of non-Hispanic Whites were living at the poverty level.
Insurance Coverage: It is significant to note that Hispanics have the highest uninsured rates of any racial or ethnic group within the United States. In 2012 the Census Bureau reported that private insurance coverage among Hispanic subgroups varied as follows: 38.8 percent of Mexicans, 49.6 percent of Puerto Ricans, 48.4 percent of Cubans, 35.9 percent of Central Americans. Public health coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 33.2 percent of Mexicans, 42.7 percent of Puerto Ricans, 32.7 of Cubans, and 27.8 percent of Central Americans. Those without health insurance coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 31.6 percent of Mexicans, 14.1 percent of Puerto Ricans, 23.8 percent of Cubans and 38.8 percent of Central Americans. In 2012, 29 percent of the Hispanic population was not covered by health insurance, as compared to 10.4 percent of the non-Hispanic White population.
Full Census Reports:
The Hispanic Population: 2010 [PDF | 1.7MB]
The American Community Survey - Hispanics: 2004 [PDF | 1MB]
Language Use in the United States: 2011 [PDF | 1.1MB]
Census Bureau, 2013. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012 [PDF | 1.1MB]
Health: Hispanic health is often shaped by factors such as language/cultural barriers, lack of access to preventive care, and the lack of health insurance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has cited some of the leading causes of illness and death among Hispanics, which include heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), stroke, and diabetes. Some other health conditions and risk factors that significantly affect Hispanics are: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and liver disease.
Other Health Concerns: Hispanics have higher rates of obesity than non-Hispanic Whites. There are also disparities among Hispanic subgroups. For instance, while the rate of low birth weight infants is lower for the total Hispanic population in comparison to non-Hispanic Whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic Whites. Also Puerto Ricans also suffer disproportionately from asthma, HIVAIDS and infant mortality. Mexican-Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes.